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Safety Assurance During Food Processing

  • Safety Assurance During Food Processing

Safety Assurance During Food Processing

Frans J.M. Smulders and John D. Collins

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Author(s): Frans J.M. Smulders and John D. Collins

About The Book

Microbial agents (particularly bacteria) represent the greatest risk to public health. The traditional end-product oriented food inspection systems are inadequate for identifying and eliminating the usually symptomless animal carriers of agents causing foodborne infections and intoxications. Modern, risk-based, prevention approaches are the only effective way to reduce the prevalence of these hazards from our foods. As an additional 'safety-valve' microbial decontamination procedures are currently being suggested and its implementation in industrial food processing has, at least in some parts of the world, met with governmental approval. The residues in foods of some non-microbial agents have more recently also caused substantial consumer disquiet. This equally applies to non-conventional foods containing GMO's.

In this publication these issues are addressed by invited expert scientists from various disciplines, many of which have key-positions in EU-funded research programmes on these very topics and/or are advisers to international public health bodies. The editors firmly believe that the very nature of the theme, the excellence of the papers and the holistic approach chosen will draw an audience from both an industry and academic background.

Additional Information

Author Frans J.M. Smulders and John D. Collins
Availability In Print
Dimensions Unknown
Extent 442 pp
ISBN 9789076998060
Publication date 2004
Book Type Hardcover

Contents

Preface

Keynote contributions

Food Safety - a worldwide public health issue Actions to reverse the upward curve of foodborne illness

  • Introduction
  • Factors of significance for food safety
  • Emerging pathogens / issues
  • Prevention and control
  • Responsibilities for the prevention of foodborne illness: the concept of shared responsibility
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgement
  • References

Public health issues in dairy production and the implications on the safety of aged cheeses made with raw milk

  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Previous reviews on the safety of raw milk cheeses
  • Outbreaks involving cheddar cheese
  • Challenge studies
  • Pathogens in raw milk
  • Stress adaptation of pathogens and impact upon cheese safety
  • Improvement in cheese safety
  • Conclusions
  • References

Major pathogens associated with the processing of beef

  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Sources of carcass contamination
  • The presence and prevalence of E. Coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in cattle and on carcasses
  • The rumen and faeces as sources of contamination
  • Carcass contamination
  • Seasonality, systems, study design and sensitivity
  • The movement of pathogens on carcasses during processing
  • Conclusions
  • References

Research update on major pathogens associated with the processing of poultry and poultry products

  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • The key microorganisms - agents of foodborne disease
  • Control measures at different stages of processing
  • Conclusions
  • References

Research update on major pathogens associated with the processing of pork and pork products

  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Important pathogens
  • The pork production chain
  • Salmonella detection in live pigs and in pork
  • Salmonella infection in pigs
  • Transport and stress
  • Lairage
  • Slaughterline
  • Control in slaughter lines
  • Recommendation for reducing contamination in the pork production chain
  • Conclusions
  • References

Research update on major pathogens associated with fish products and processing of fish

  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Processing of Fish Products
  • Major Pathogens
  • Conclusions
  • References

Use of statistical methods to assess food safety

  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Nationwide Strategies
  • Plant Specific Concepts
  • References

Predictive modelling to control microbial hazards in the food processing industry

  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Primary models
  • Secondary models
  • Creating predictive software packages
  • Measuring the performance of predictive models
  • Conclusions
  • References

Elimination of foodborne pathogens by ionising radiation

  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • General Scientific and Technological Considerations
  • Radiation decontamination of foods of animal origin
  • Safety and Legislation of Irradiated Food of Animal origin
  • Food irradiation process control and detection of irradiated foods
  • Recent Developments on Commercial Application of Food Irradiation
  • Conclusions
  • References

Reduction of the microbial contamination of carcasses and meat cuts with particular reference to the application of organic acids

  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • A review of microbial contamination at the ?harvest? level
  • Control strategies
  • Microbial decontamination of carcasses and meat cuts
  • Conclusions
  • References

Testing foods of animal origin for residues of chemical contaminants

  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Sample types
  • Screening versus confirmation
  • General outlook of residue analysis
  • Conclusions
  • References

Hormones residue testing: An update in research and approaches

  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Opposing aspects
  • Analytical strategies
  • Hormones in use as growth promoters
  • Hormone residue data for edible tissues
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgements
  • References

Veterinary use and antibiotic resistance

  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • How many antibiotics are used?
  • Environmental spread of antibiotic resistance from farm animals
  • Foodborne pathogens and antibiotic resistance
  • Antibiotic resistance in aquaculture systems
  • Conclusions
  • Update
  • References

Food processing stresses in the spread of antibiotic resistance

  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Emergence of antibiotic resistance
  • The story so far
  • Where do we go from here?
  • Factors in the emergence and spread of ABR
  • Food processing
  • Modern bacteriostatic systems
  • Stress and growth rate
  • Supracellular stress responses and antibiotic resistance
  • Biofilms and ABR
  • The importance of growth rate
  • No growth does not equal no activity
  • When the going gets tough, the tough get going
  • Food processing stresses
  • Effects of bacteriostatic stress
  • Mechanisms of adaptive mutations
  • Adaptive mutations and ABR
  • Stress, genetic plasticity and the spread of abr
  • Global controls and outcomes
  • Bacterial strategies to overcome stress
  • Overall impact of food processing stresses
  • Conclusions
  • References

Genetically modified food and feeds; definition and identification

  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • The legal situation
  • Application of GMO?s in food production
  • Genetic modification
  • Possibilities for detection
  • Molecular biological methods
  • Limit of detection; Quantification
  • Analytics at the BALUF
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgement
  • References

Reducing the role of contact materials in the contamination of foods of animal origin

  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • Bacterial attachment and surface colonization
  • General consequences of biofilm formation
  • Attachment of microorganisms to food contact surfaces and parameters that affect such attachment
  • Attachment of microorganisms to meat and poultry
  • Control of biofilm development
  • Assessing surface cleanliness
  • Conclusions
  • References

Food additives and public health

  • Summary
  • Introduction
  • What are food additives?
  • Standards for approval of food additives and under which condition additives may be used
  • Possible technological reasons for using food additives
  • The ?Quantum satis? concept
  • Carry-over
  • Health-aspects of the preservative ?nitrite curing salt?
  • Conclusions
  • References

Synopses of other conference contributions

Evaluation of hygienic characteristics of Italian ?Fossa? cheese

Application of monitoring score system to catering industry

Sensitive detection of Listeria monocytogenes in different food commodities by enrichment and real-time quantitative PCR

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 in sheep at slaughter and in sheep meat

Investigation using an integrated sample PCR-pretreatment/two-step multiplexnested PCR strategy for the simultaneous detection of L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. in food matrices of epidemiological concern

The effects of fasting on Escherichia coli and accompanying gastrointestinal microflora in cattle pre- and post-slaughter

Food testing by PCR: thermal processor reliability testing

Spread of foodborne pathogens along the unloading-to-slaughter areas at cattle and sheep abattoirs

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis characterization of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 from hides of cattle at slaughter

Impact of slaughtering, dissecting and processing on the microbial quality of turkey meat

Reduction of microbial carcase contamination with high voltage electrical stimulation

Toxigenesis of Clostridium botulinum type E in pasteurized rainbow trout roe during extended refrigeration

Effect of relative humidity on thermal destruction of Clostridium botulinum type E spores in vacuum-packed hot-smoked whitefish

Potential for spread of foodborne pathogens via abattoir wastes

Growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in refrigerated poultry meat

A survey of the microbiological condition of sushi from Viennese retail operations

Prevalence and resistance of Campylobacter spp. in Styrian poultry meat

On the hygienic status of domestic fish and fish products

A semi-quantitative risk assessment model for contamination of beef carcasses with Escherichia coliO157

High pressure processing applied to foods of animal origin

Residues of β-lactam antibiotics in bovine milk: HPLC-MS/MS confirmatory analysis after microbial assay screening

Epidemiological models for monitoring antimicrobial resistance in the food chain

Antibiotic residues in milk of dairy cows after mastitis treatment

Cpe- positive Clostridium perfringens - strains in spices

Effect of nitrite on growth of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum type b in Frankfurter-type sausage

Adherence of persistent Listeria monocytogenes strains

Efficacy of HACCP system implementation in a medium-sized meat plant producing typical Italian salami

Biographies

Index

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