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Root-knot Nematodes

  • Root-knot Nematodes

Root-knot Nematodes

R. Perry, M. Moens and J. L. Starr

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Author(s): R. Perry, M. Moens and J. L. Starr

About The Book

Root-knot nematodes are the most economically important group of plant-parasitic nematodes worldwide, and their control presents a major global challenge. Advances are being made in understanding their biology, host-parasite interaction and management strategies, and this comprehensive guide with many colour photos and contributions from international experts covers the taxonomy, classification, morphology, life-cycle biology, genomes, resistance, sampling, detection, and management strategies of these pests, providing an essential reference for researchers, students and lecturers in plant nematology, plant pathology, agriculture, and agronomy.

Additional Information

Author R. Perry, M. Moens and J. L. Starr
Availability In Print
Dimensions 246 x 176mm
Extent 520 pp
ISBN 9781845934927
Publication date October 2009
Book Type Hardcover

Contents

Animal Design and the Use of Food Resources

1 Meloidogyne species - A Diverse Group of Novel and Important Plant Parasites - Maurice Moens, Roland N. Perry and James L. Starr
1.1. Introduction
1.2. Impact
1.3. History of the Genus
1.4. Current Trends in Species Identification
1.5. Life Cycle
1.6. Diversity in Biology
1.7. Major and Emerging Species
1.8. Interactions with other Plant Pathogens
1.9. Management and Control
1.10. Conclusions and Future Directions

2 General Morphology - Jonathan D. Eisenback and David J. Hunt
2.1. General Morphology
2.2. Body Wall
2.3. Nervous System
2.4. Digestive System
2.5. Secretory-Excretory System
2.6. Reproductive System
2.7. Morphological Methods
2.8. Minimum Standards for Describing a New Species
2.9. References
3 Taxonomy, Identification and Principal Species - David J. Hunt and Zafar A. Handoo
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Systematic Position
3.3. Subfamily and Genus Diagnosis
3.4. List of Species and Synonyms
3.5. Identification
3.6. Principal Species
3.7. Conclusions and Future Directions
3.8. Acknowledgements
3.9. References
4 Biochemical and Molecular Identification - Vivian C. Blok and Thomas O. Powers
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Biochemical Methods
4.3. DNA-based Methods
4.4. Conclusions and Future Directions
4.5. Acknowledgements
4.6. References
5 Molecular Taxonomy and Phylogeny - Byron Adams, Adler R. Dillman and Camille Finlinson
5.1. Introduction
5.2. History of Reconstructing Meloidogyne History
5.3. Molecular Phylogenetics: Genetic Markers and Evolutionary Relationships
5.4. A Meloidogyne Supertree Analysis
5.5. Conclusions and Future Prospects
5.6. References
6 Hatch and Host Location - Rosane H.C. Curtis, A. Forest Robinson and Roland N. Perry 
6.1. Introduction
6.2. Hatching
6.3. Movement Through Soil
6.4. Host Location
6.5. Nematode Changes and Responses at the Root-Soil Interface
6.6. Conclusions and Future Directions
6.7. References
7 Invasion, Feeding and Development - Pierre Abad, Philippe Castagnone-Sereno, Marie-Noëlle Rosso, Janice de Almeida Engler and Bruno Favery
7.1. Introduction
7.2. Root-knot Nematode Life Cycle
7.3. Nematode Parasitism
7.4. Compatible Interactions with Resistant Plants: The Case of Virulent Root-knot Nematodes
7.5. (A)virulence Determinants and Pathogenicity Factors: Root-knot Nematode Effectors with Dual Function? 
7.6. Tools for Molecular and Functional Analysis of Root-knot Nematode Parasitism
7.7. Giant Cell Development
7.8. Cytoskeleton Organization and Cell Cycle Progression during Giant Cell Ontogenesis
7.9. Extensive Cell Wall Modifications to build up Giant Cells
7.10. Suppression of Plant Defence Associated with Giant Cell Development
7.11. Major Reprogramming of Plant Metabolism and Transport
7.12. Comparison between Meloidogyne Parasitism and Symbiotic Rhizobia in Medicago
7.13. Conclusions and Future Directions
7.14. Acknowledgements
7.15. References
8 Reproduction, Physiology and Biochemistry - David Chitwood and Roland N. Perry
8.1. Introduction
8.2. Reproduction and Moulting
8.3. Physiology
8.4. Biochemistry
8.5. Sensory Perception and Neurotransmission
8.6. Conclusions and Future Directions
8.7. References
9 Survival Strategies - Adrian A.F. Evans and Roland N. Perry 
9.1. Introduction
9.2. Dormancy, Diapause and Quiescence
9.3. Embryonation and the Egg Mass Environment 
9.4. Temperature effects on development of eggs and infective stages
9.5. The Effect of Osmotic Stress on Infective Stages in Soil
9.6. Survival Mechanisms Deployed: Life History Strategies in Meloidogyne species
9.7. Conclusions and Future Directions
9.8. References
10 Interactions with Other Pathogens - Rosa H. Manzanilla-López and James L. Starr 
10.1. Introduction
10.2. Interactions with Microbial Pathogens
10.3. Interactions with Other Plant-parasitic Nematodes
10.4. Basis for Interactions
10.5. Conclusions and Future Directions
10.6. References
11 Population Dynamics and Damage Levels - Nicola Greco and Mauro Di Vito 
11.1. Introduction
11.2. Patterns of Population Dynamics
11.3. Factors Affecting Population Dynamics
11.4. Modelling Population Dynamics
11.5. Damage Levels
11.6. Pattern of Nematode Damage to Crop Plants
11.7. Factors Affecting Nematode Damage
11.8. Modelling Damage Levels
11.9. Implementing Experiments to Assess Nematode Dynamics and Crop Damage
11.10. Yield Loss Assessment
11.11. Importance of Information on Nematode Damage Levels and Dynamics in Management Strategies
11.12. Conclusions and Future Directions
11.13. Acknowledgements
11.14. References
12 Distribution Patterns and Sampling - Larry W. Duncan and Mark S. Phillips
12.1. Introduction
12.2. Nematode Spatial Patterns
12.3. Characterizing Sample Accuracy and Reliability
12.4. Sample Processing
12.5. Extracting Nematodes from Soil
12.6. Extracting Nematodes from Plant Material
12.7. Root Gall Indices
12.8. Other Plant Symptoms
12.9. Research to Optimize Sampling Programmes for Root-knot Nematodes
12.10. Examples of Results from Sampling Programmes
12.11. Conclusions and Future Directions
12.12. References
13 Mechanisms and Genetics of Resistance - Valerie M. Williamson and Philip A. Roberts
13.1. Introduction
13.2. Sources and Inheritance of Root-knot Nematode Resistance
13.3. Mechanisms of Resistance to Pathogens in Plants
13.4. Structure and Function of the Nematode Resistance Gene Mi-1
13.5. What is known about other Nematode R Genes
13.6. Nematode Virulence and Durability of Resistance
13.7. Management of Resistance and Virulence in the Field
13.8. Conclusions and Future Directions
13.9. References
14 Development of Resistant Varieties - James L. Starr and Chris F. Mercer
14.1. Introduction - the Plus Side
14.2. Introduction - a Look at the Other Side
14.3. Successful Use of Resistance - Room for Wider Deployment
14.4. Planning a Resistance-breeding Programme
14.5. Screening Methods Including Marker-assisted Selection
14.6. Quality of Candidate Resistant Material
14.7. Engineered Resistance
14.8. Conclusions and Future Directions
14.9. References
15 Plant Biotechnology and Control - Howard J. Atkinson, Peter E. Urwin and Richard S. Hussey
15.1. Introduction
15.2. Proteinase Inhibitors
15.3. Cry Proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis as Biopesticides
15.4. In planta RNAi to Target Plant-parasitic Nematodes
15.5. Repellents
15.6. The Mi-1-mediated Resistance Response
15.7. Efficacy and Durability
15.8. Promoters for Transgenic Control of Meloidogyne
15.9. Biosafety
15.10. Developing World Needs
15.11. Conclusions and Future Directions
15.12. References
16 The Complete Sequence of the Genomes of Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne hapla - Pierre Abad and Charles H. Opperman1 Meloidogyne species - A Diverse Group of Novel and Important Plant Parasites - Maurice Moens, Roland N. Perry and James L. Starr
1.1. Introduction
1.2. Impact
1.3. History of the Genus
1.4. Current Trends in Species Identification
1.5. Life Cycle
1.6. Diversity in Biology
1.7. Major and Emerging Species
1.8. Interactions with other Plant Pathogens
1.9. Management and Control
1.10. Conclusions and Future Directions
2 General Morphology - Jonathan D. Eisenback and David J. Hunt
2.1. General Morphology
2.2. Body Wall
2.3. Nervous System
2.4. Digestive System
2.5. Secretory-Excretory System
2.6. Reproductive System
2.7. Morphological Methods
2.8. Minimum Standards for Describing a New Species
2.9. References
3 Taxonomy, Identification and Principal Species - David J. Hunt and Zafar A. Handoo
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Systematic Position
3.3. Subfamily and Genus Diagnosis
3.4. List of Species and Synonyms
3.5. Identification
3.6. Principal Species
3.7. Conclusions and Future Directions
3.8. Acknowledgements
3.9. References
4 Biochemical and Molecular Identification - Vivian C. Blok and Thomas O. Powers
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Biochemical Methods
4.3. DNA-based Methods
4.4. Conclusions and Future Directions
4.5. Acknowledgements
4.6. References
5 Molecular Taxonomy and Phylogeny - Byron Adams, Adler R. Dillman and Camille Finlinson
5.1. Introduction
5.2. History of Reconstructing Meloidogyne History
5.3. Molecular Phylogenetics: Genetic Markers and Evolutionary Relationships
5.4. A Meloidogyne Supertree Analysis
5.5. Conclusions and Future Prospects
5.6. References
6 Hatch and Host Location - Rosane H.C. Curtis, A. Forest Robinson and Roland N. Perry 
6.1. Introduction
6.2. Hatching
6.3. Movement Through Soil
6.4. Host Location
6.5. Nematode Changes and Responses at the Root-Soil Interface
6.6. Conclusions and Future Directions
6.7. References
7 Invasion, Feeding and Development - Pierre Abad, Philippe Castagnone-Sereno, Marie-Noëlle Rosso, Janice de Almeida Engler and Bruno Favery
7.1. Introduction
7.2. Root-knot Nematode Life Cycle
7.3. Nematode Parasitism
7.4. Compatible Interactions with Resistant Plants: The Case of Virulent Root-knot Nematodes
7.5. (A)virulence Determinants and Pathogenicity Factors: Root-knot Nematode Effectors with Dual Function? 
7.6. Tools for Molecular and Functional Analysis of Root-knot Nematode Parasitism
7.7. Giant Cell Development
7.8. Cytoskeleton Organization and Cell Cycle Progression during Giant Cell Ontogenesis
7.9. Extensive Cell Wall Modifications to build up Giant Cells
7.10. Suppression of Plant Defence Associated with Giant Cell Development
7.11. Major Reprogramming of Plant Metabolism and Transport
7.12. Comparison between Meloidogyne Parasitism and Symbiotic Rhizobia in Medicago
7.13. Conclusions and Future Directions
7.14. Acknowledgements
7.15. References
8 Reproduction, Physiology and Biochemistry - David Chitwood and Roland N. Perry
8.1. Introduction
8.2. Reproduction and Moulting
8.3. Physiology
8.4. Biochemistry
8.5. Sensory Perception and Neurotransmission
8.6. Conclusions and Future Directions
8.7. References
9 Survival Strategies - Adrian A.F. Evans and Roland N. Perry 
9.1. Introduction
9.2. Dormancy, Diapause and Quiescence
9.3. Embryonation and the Egg Mass Environment 
9.4. Temperature effects on development of eggs and infective stages
9.5. The Effect of Osmotic Stress on Infective Stages in Soil
9.6. Survival Mechanisms Deployed: Life History Strategies in Meloidogyne species
9.7. Conclusions and Future Directions
9.8. References
10 Interactions with Other Pathogens - Rosa H. Manzanilla-López and James L. Starr 
10.1. Introduction
10.2. Interactions with Microbial Pathogens
10.3. Interactions with Other Plant-parasitic Nematodes
10.4. Basis for Interactions
10.5. Conclusions and Future Directions
10.6. References
11 Population Dynamics and Damage Levels - Nicola Greco and Mauro Di Vito 
11.1. Introduction
11.2. Patterns of Population Dynamics
11.3. Factors Affecting Population Dynamics
11.4. Modelling Population Dynamics
11.5. Damage Levels
11.6. Pattern of Nematode Damage to Crop Plants
11.7. Factors Affecting Nematode Damage
11.8. Modelling Damage Levels
11.9. Implementing Experiments to Assess Nematode Dynamics and Crop Damage
11.10. Yield Loss Assessment
11.11. Importance of Information on Nematode Damage Levels and Dynamics in Management Strategies
11.12. Conclusions and Future Directions
11.13. Acknowledgements
11.14. References
12 Distribution Patterns and Sampling - Larry W. Duncan and Mark S. Phillips
12.1. Introduction
12.2. Nematode Spatial Patterns
12.3. Characterizing Sample Accuracy and Reliability
12.4. Sample Processing
12.5. Extracting Nematodes from Soil
12.6. Extracting Nematodes from Plant Material
12.7. Root Gall Indices
12.8. Other Plant Symptoms
12.9. Research to Optimize Sampling Programmes for Root-knot Nematodes
12.10. Examples of Results from Sampling Programmes
12.11. Conclusions and Future Directions
12.12. References
13 Mechanisms and Genetics of Resistance - Valerie M. Williamson and Philip A. Roberts
13.1. Introduction
13.2. Sources and Inheritance of Root-knot Nematode Resistance
13.3. Mechanisms of Resistance to Pathogens in Plants
13.4. Structure and Function of the Nematode Resistance Gene Mi-1
13.5. What is known about other Nematode R Genes
13.6. Nematode Virulence and Durability of Resistance
13.7. Management of Resistance and Virulence in the Field
13.8. Conclusions and Future Directions
13.9. References
14 Development of Resistant Varieties - James L. Starr and Chris F. Mercer
14.1. Introduction - the Plus Side
14.2. Introduction - a Look at the Other Side
14.3. Successful Use of Resistance - Room for Wider Deployment
14.4. Planning a Resistance-breeding Programme
14.5. Screening Methods Including Marker-assisted Selection
14.6. Quality of Candidate Resistant Material
14.7. Engineered Resistance
14.8. Conclusions and Future Directions
14.9. References
15 Plant Biotechnology and Control - Howard J. Atkinson, Peter E. Urwin and Richard S. Hussey
15.1. Introduction
15.2. Proteinase Inhibitors
15.3. Cry Proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis as Biopesticides
15.4. In planta RNAi to Target Plant-parasitic Nematodes
15.5. Repellents
15.6. The Mi-1-mediated Resistance Response
15.7. Efficacy and Durability
15.8. Promoters for Transgenic Control of Meloidogyne
15.9. Biosafety
15.10. Developing World Needs
15.11. Conclusions and Future Directions
15.12. References
16 The Complete Sequence of the Genomes of Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne hapla Pierre Abad and Charles H. Opperman

16.1. Introduction
16.2. Meloidogyne incognita Genome
16.3. Meloidogyne hapla Genome
16.4. Conclusions and Future Directions
16.5. Acknowledgements
16.6. References
17 Biological Control through Microbial Pathogens, Endophytes and Antagonists - Johannes Hallmann, Keith G. Davies and Richard Sikora
17.1. Introduction
17.2. Bacterial Pathogens and Antagonists 
17.3. Fungal Pathogens and Antagonists
17.4. Commercialisation and Future Directions
17.5. References
18 Current and Future Management Strategies in Intensive Crop Production Systems - Andrew P. Nyczepir and Stephen H. Thomas
18.1. Introduction
18.2. Current Control Practices
18.3. Current Management Practices
18.4. Future Opportunities and Challenges
18.5. Conclusions and Future Directions
18.6. References
19 Current and Future Management Strategies in Resource-Poor Farming - Danny L. Coyne, Driekie H. Fourie and Maurice Moens
19.1. Introduction and Definitions
19.2. Options
19.3. Correct Diagnosis
19.4. Prevention
19.5. Cultural Control
19.6. Cropping Systems
19.7. Resistance
19.8. Biological Control 
19.9. Chemical Control
19.10. Conclusions and Future Directions
19.11. References

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