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Introduction to Chemicals from Biomass

  • Introduction to Chemicals from Biomass

Introduction to Chemicals from Biomass

Edited by James H. Clark & Fabien Deswarte

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£50.00
Author(s): Edited by James H. Clark & Fabien Deswarte

About The Book

Nature provides us with an abundance of chemical potential. Presenting an overview of the use of bioresources in the 21st century, Introduction to Chemicals from Biomass covers resources, chemical composition of biomass, key factors affecting composition, utilization of wastes, extraction technologies, controlled pyrolysis, fermentation, platform molecules, and green chemical technologies for their conversion to valuable chemicals. The text shows how smaller volume chemicals could become bulk chemicals as a result of a greater exploitation of biomass products, making it an important resource for academic and industrial scientists and researchers.

Additional Information

Author Edited by James H. Clark & Fabien Deswarte
Availability In Print
Dimensions Unknown
Extent 198 Pages
ISBN 9780470058053
Publication date August 2008
Book Type Hardcover

Contents

Series Preface 
Preface 
List of Contributors 
  1. The Biorefinery Concept–An Integrated Approach James H. Clark and Fabien E. I. Deswarte 1.1 The Challenge of Sustainable Development
    1.2 Renewable Resources— Nature and Availability 
    1.3 Impact on Ecosystem Services 
    1.4 The Biorefinery Concept 
        1.4.1 Definition 
        1.4.2 Different Types of Biorefinery
        1.4.3 Challenges and Opportunities 
    1.5 Conclusions 
    References
  2. The Chemical Value of Biomass David B. Turley
    2.1 Introduction
        2.1.1 Key Routes of Plant Exploitation for Chemical Raw Materials 
    2.2 Plant Oils 
        2.2.1 Abundance and Sources 
        2.2.2 Oil Profiles of Major Oil Crops 
        2.2.3 Oils with Modified Fatty-Acid Content 
        2.2.4 High Erucic Acid Oils 
        2.2.5 Novel Fatty-Acid Derivatives found in Plants that have Industrial Uses 
        2.2.6 Industrial Uses for Glycerol 
    2.3 Carbohydrates 
        2.3.1 Starches and Sugars 
        2.3.2 Cellulose 
        2.3.3 Hemicellulose 
    2.4 Lignin 
    2.5 Proteins 
        2.5.1 Healthcare Proteins 
    2.6 Waxes 
    2.7 Secondary Metabolites 
        2.7.1 Glucosinolates 
        2.7.2 Other Industrial Uses for Secondary Metabolites 
    2.8 Prospects Arising from Developments in Plant Biotechnology and Biorefining 
        2.8.1 Protection of Conventional Food Crop Chains 
        2.8.2 Cell and Tissue Culture 
        2.8.3 Biorefining 
        2.8.4 Thermochemical Routes of Exploitation 
    2.9 Concluding Comments 
    References 
  3. Green Chemical Technologies - Francesca M. Kerton
    3.1 Introduction 
    3.2 What are Green Chemistry and Green Engineering? 
    3.3 Evaluating the Environmental Effects of Chemistry and Green Metrics 
    3.4 Alternative Solvents
        3.4.1 Supercritical Fluids 
        3.4.2 Water
        3.4.3 Ionic Liquids 
        3.4.4 Other Alternatives to VOCs: ‘Solventless’, Biphasic and Bio-Sourced Solvents
    3.5 Energy Considerations: Microwaves, Ultrasound, Electricity and Light 
        3.5.1 Microwave-Assisted Chemistry 
        3.5.2 Sonochemistry 
        3.5.3 Electrochemistry 
        3.5.4 Photochemistry 
    3.6 Catalysts 
        3.6.1 Homogeneous Catalysts 
        3.6.2 Heterogeneous Catalysts 
        3.6.3 Biocatalysts 
    3.7 Conclusions 
    References 
  4. Production of Chemicals from Biomass - Apostolis A. Koutinas, C. Du, R.H. Wang and Colin Webb 
    4.1 Introduction 
    4.2 Carbohydrates 
        4.2.1 Chemical Production from Saccharides 
        4.2.2 Chemical Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass 
    4.3 Vegetable Oils 
    4.4 Chemical Production from Proteins 
    4.5 Chemical Production through Green Chemical Extraction of Biomass 
    References 
  5. Biomaterials - Carlos Vaca-Garcia 
    5.1 Introduction 
    5.2 Wood and Natural Fibres 
        5.2.1 Molecular Constitution 
        5.2.2 Wood and Timber 
        5.2.3 Plant Fibres 
    5.3 Isolated and Modified Biopolymers as Biomaterials 
        5.3.1 Cellulose 
        5.3.2 Cellulose Esters 
        5.3.3 Cellulose Ethers 
        5.3.4 Starch 
        5.3.5 Chitin and Chitosan 
        5.3.6 Zein 
        5.3.7 Lignin Derivatives 
    5.4 Agromaterials, Blends and Composites 
        5.4.1 Agromaterials 
        5.4.2 Blends of Synthetic Polymers and Starch 
        5.4.3 Wood Plastic Composites (WPC) 
        5.4.4 Wood-Based Boards 
    5.5 Biodegradable Plastics 
        5.5.1 Polyglycolic Acid (PGA) 
        5.5.2 Polylactic Acid (PLA) 
        5.5.3 Polycaprolactone (PCL) 
        5.5.4 Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) 
        5.5.5 Cellulose Graft-Polymers 
    5.6 Conclusion 
    References 
  6. Production of Energy from Biomass Mehrdad Arshadi and Anita Sellstedt 
    6.1 Introduction 
    6.2 Physical Upgrading Processes 
        6.2.1 Refinement of Solids to Biofuel 
        6.2.2 Wood Powder 
        6.2.3 Briquette Production 
        6.2.4 Pellet Production 
        6.2.5 Torrefaction 
    6.3 Microbiological Processes 
        6.3.1 Organisms and Processes 
        6.3.2 Microbiological Ethanol Production 
        6.3.3 Production of Butanol from Bacteria 
        6.3.4 Production of Biodiesel from Plants and Algae 
        6.3.5 Biogas Production 
        6.3.6 Hydrogen Production 
        6.3.7 Artificial Photosynthesis 
    6.4 Thermochemical Processes 
        6.4.1 Thermal Processing Equipment 
        6.4.2 Gasification 
        6.4.3 Pyrolysis 
        6.4.4 Liquefaction 
        6.4.5 Combustion 
    6.5 Chemical Processes 
        6.5.1 Dimethy Ether (DME) 
        6.5.2 Biodiesel 
        6.5.3 Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) 
        6.5.4 Primary Alcohols 
        6.5.5 Ethanol from Sugar Feedstock 
        6.5.6 Ethanol from Starchy Feedstock 
        6.5.7 Ethanol from Cellulose Feedstock 
    6.6 Power Generation from Biomass 
        6.6.1 Fuel Cells 
    References
Index

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