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Feed Evaluation

  • Feed Evaluation

Feed Evaluation

P.J. Moughan, M.W.A. Verstegen and M.I. Visser-Reyneveld

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Author(s): P.J. Moughan, M.W.A. Verstegen and M.I. Visser-Reyneveld

About The Book

The provision of balanced diets accounts for the major cost in intensive livestock production and to maximise profits requires continuous improvement in all aspects of dietary formulation. Consequently, throughout the world, considerable scientific effort is devoted to bringing about a better description of the nutrient content of diverse feedstuffs, to understanding the mode of action of anti-nutritional factors, to improving the description of nutrient requirements and to developing refined technologies for feed formulation, processing and provision.

Feed evaluation science is a rapidly developing high technology field, with feed compounders, nutritionists, advisors and producers needing to keep abreast of rapid innovation.

This text, written by a team of international authorities, covers basic principles and new developments in feed evaluation for simple-stomached animals with an emphasis on pigs and poultry. The topics of nutrient analysis and characterisation, nutrient bioavailablility, post-absorptive nutrient utilisation, modern approaches to the estimation of nutrient requirements (including growth modelling) are all covered in depth. Recent advances in feed evaluation for pigs, poultry and companion animals are highlighted.

The work is essential reading for anyone needing to remain at the forefront of technological developments in feed evaluation.

Additional Information

Author P.J. Moughan, M.W.A. Verstegen and M.I. Visser-Reyneveld
Availability In Print
Dimensions Unknown (W x H x D)
Extent 280pp
ISBN 9789074134781
Publication date 2000
Book Type Hardcover

Contents

Preface

1. Overview of determinants of the nutritional value of feed ingredients

  • Summary
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Total content of energy-yielding nutrients and amino acids
  • 1.2.1 Energy-yielding nutrients
  • 1.2.2 Amino acids
  • 1.3 Nutrient availability
  • 1.4 Contents of antinutritional factors
  • 1.5 Physico-chemical properties
  • 1.6 Feed ingredient-specific effects on utilisation of absorbed nutrients
  • 1.7 Effects of feed ingredients on voluntary feed intake
  • 1.8 Effects of feed ingredients on the quality of animal products
  • 1.9 Conclusion
  • 1.10 References

2. Principles of chemical analysis

  • Summary
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Sample collection
  • 2.3 Sample preparation
  • 2.4 Sample storage
  • 2.5 Analysis
  • 2.5.1 Weighing
  • 2.5.2 Instrumentation
  • 2.5.3 Data manipulation and presentation
  • 2.5.4 Laboratory cleanliness
  • 2.5.5 Record keeping
  • 2.6 Conclusion
  • 2.7 References

3. Developments in the determination of protein and amino acids

  • Summary
  • 3.1 Determination of protein content
  • 3.2 Determination of the amino acid content of feedstuffs
  • 3.2.1 Sample hydrolysis
  • 3.2.2 The chromatography step
  • 3.2.3 Determination of unusual amino acids
  • 3.2.4 Detection of peptides
  • 3.2.5 Presentation of results
  • 3.3 Pitfalls
  • 3.3.1 Heterogeneous samples
  • 3.3.2 Internal standards
  • 3.3.3 External standards
  • 3.3.4 Inter-laboratory comparisons
  • 3.3.5 Storage
  • 3.3.6 Physiological samples
  • 3.4 Conclusions
  • 3.5 References

4. Developments in the measurement of the energy content of feeds and energy utilisation in animals

  • Summary
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Feed components providing energy for animals
  • 4.2.1 Proteins and other nitrogenous compounds
  • 4.2.2 Carbohydrates and related compounds
  • 4.2.3 Lipids
  • 4.3 Gross energy content of feed components
  • 4.4 Measurements of energy utilisation in animals
  • 4.4.1 Digestible energy (DE)
  • 4.4.2 Metabolisable energy
  • 4.4.3 Net energy
  • 4.4.4 Methods for measuring energy transactions in animals
  • 4.4.4.1 Direct calorimetry
  • 4.4.4.2 Indirect calorimetry
  • 4.4.4.3 Body composition changes (comparative slaughter techniques)
  • 4.4.5 Physiological energy
  • 4.4.6 Comparison of methods
  • 4.5 Interrelationships between feed components and energy use by animals
  • 4.6 Conclusion
  • 4.7 References

5. Characterisation of the non-starch polysaccharides

  • Summary
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Chemical composition and structure of NSPs
  • 5.3 Mechanisms by which dietary NSPs affect animal performance
  • 5.4 Chemical characterisation of NSPs
  • 5.5 Measurement of viscosity and water-holding capacity
  • 5.6 Conclusions
  • 5.7 References

6. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy and related technologies for the analysis of feed ingredients

  • Summary
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Principles of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) and related technologies
  • 6.3 NIRS calibration
  • 6.4 NIRS applications
  • 6.5 Conclusions
  • 6.6 References

7. Amino acids - The collection of ileal digesta and characterisation of the endogenous component

  • Summary
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Faecal versus ileal amino acid digestibilities
  • 7.3 Digesta collection
  • 7.3.1 Slaughter technique
  • 7.3.2 Anastomosis
  • 7.3.3 Caecectomy
  • 7.3.4 T-Cannula
  • 7.3.5 Reentrant cannula
  • 7.3.6 Post-valve T-caecum cannula
  • 7.3.7 Steered ileal-caecal valve cannula
  • 7.4 Determining endogenous nitrogen and amino acid losses
  • 7.4.1 Protein-free diets
  • 7.4.2 Linear regression
  • 7.4.3 Synthetic amino acid based diets
  • 7.4.4 Protein-free diets with intravenous amino acid infusion
  • 7.4.5 Natural proteins devoid of specific amino acids
  • 7.4.6 Guanidinated proteins
  • 7.4.7 Enzymatically hydrolysed protein
  • 7.4.8 Isotope dilution
  • 7.5 Conclusion
  • 7.6 References

8. Amino acids: digestibility, availability and metabolism

  • Summary
  • 8.1 An overview of amino acid metabolism
  • 8.2 Availability versus digestibility
  • 8.3 Unprocessed feedstuffs
  • 8.4 Processed feedstuffs
  • 8.5 Conclusion
  • 8.6 References

9. Bioavailability: the energy component of a ration for monogastric animals

  • Summary
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Components of a ration that provide energy
  • 9.3 Determinants of bioavailability: digestion, absorption and utilisation
  • 9.3.1 Digestion and absorption: dietary factors 137
  • 9.3.1.1 Soluble carbohydrate digestion
  • 9.3.1.2 Lipid digestion
  • 9.3.1.3 Insoluble carbohydrate digestion
  • 9.3.1.4 Protein digestion
  • 9.3.2 Digestion and absorption: animal and environmental factors
  • 9.3.2.1 Age of animal and adaptation to the diet
  • 9.3.2.2 Environment and feeding level
  • 9.3.2.3 Grain storage and germination
  • 9.3.3 Utilisation of digested nutrients
  • 9.4 Methods for improving the bioavailability of energy in feeds
  • 9.4.1 Feed processing
  • 9.4.2 Exogenous enzymes
  • 9.4.3 Removal of oligosaccharides
  • 9.5 Definition of available energy for pigs and poultry
  • 9.5.1 Gross energy
  • 9.5.2 Digestible energy
  • 9.5.3 Metabolisable energy
  • 9.5.4 Net energy
  • 9.6 Prediction of the energy value of feeds
  • 9.6.1 Predicting the DE content of feedstuffs for pigs
  • 9.6.2 Predicting the AME content of feedstuffs for poultry
  • 9.7 Conclusions
  • 9.8 References

10. In vitro digestibility methods: history and specific approaches

  • Summary
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 History
  • 10.2.1 Simple in vitro methods
  • 10.2.2 Complex in vitro methods
  • 10.3 General discussion of in vitro digestibility methods
  • 10.4 Specific approaches to simulate in vivo digestion
  • 10.4.1 Simulation of pre-caecal digestion
  • 10.4.2 Simulation of total tract digestion
  • 10.5 Prediction of in vivo digestibility
  • 10.5.1 Prediction of ileal protein and amino acid digestibility
  • 10.5.2 Prediction of total tract energy digestibility
  • 10.5.3 Prediction of post-ileal energy digestibility
  • 10.6 Utilisation of in vitro digestibility methods in general feed evaluation
  • 10.7 Conclusion
  • 10.8 References

11. The significance of antinutritional factors in feedstuffs for monogastric animals

  • Summary
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Main classes of ANFs, their occurrence in feedstuffs and general description of their effects on monogastric animals
  • 11.3 Description and effects of individual antinutritional factors
  • 11.3.1 Lectins
  • 11.3.2 Protease inhibitors
  • 11.3.3 Alpha-amylase inhibitor
  • 11.3.4 Tannins
  • 11.3.5 Flatulence factors
  • 11.3.6 Antigenic proteins
  • 11.3.7 Phytic acid
  • 11.3.8 Vicine and convicine
  • 11.3.9 Saponins
  • 11.3.10 Glucosinolates
  • 11.3.11 Oxalic acid
  • 11.3.12 Gossypol
  • 11.3.13 Alkaloids
  • 11.3.14 Sinapins
  • 11.4 Conclusions
  • 11.5 References

12. Amino acid and energy requirements

  • Summary
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 Growth characteristics of the animal
  • 12.2.1 Potential rate of protein deposition
  • 12.2.2 Relationship between energy intake and rate of protein deposition
  • 12.2.3 Potential rate of energy deposition
  • 12.3 Actual rates of protein and energy deposition; effects of the production environment
  • 12.4 Stimulation of the rate of protein deposition
  • 12.5 Amino acid requirements for maintenance
  • 12.5.1 Inevitable catabolism
  • 12.5.2 Endogenous gut losses
  • 12.5.3 Integument losses
  • 12.6 Energy requirements for maintenance
  • 12.6.1 Fasting heat production
  • 12.6.2 Activity
  • 12.6.3 Control of body temperature
  • 12.6.4 Disease
  • 12.7 Control of voluntary feed intake
  • 12.7.1 Potential feed intake
  • 12.7.2 Essential-nutrient deficiency
  • 12.7.3 Gut capacity
  • 12.7.4 Stocking arrangements
  • 12.7.5 Climate
  • 12.7.6 Disease
  • 12.8 Determining the amino acid requirements of an animal
  • 12.9 Conclusions
  • 12.10 References

13. Principles behind feed formulation

    Summary
  • 13.1 Introduction
  • 13.2 Growth and production characteristics of the livestock
  • 13.3 Tissue nutrient requirements to meet production goals
  • 13.4 Translation of tissue requirements into dietary specifications
  • 13.5 Nutrient composition of feed ingredients
  • 13.6 Minimum and maximum inclusion limits for nutrients and ingredients
  • 13.7 Formulation of diets to least-cost
  • 13.8 Manufacture of the feed
  • 13.9 Conclusions
  • 13.10 References

14. Advances in feed evaluation for pigs

  • Summary
  • 14.1 Introduction
  • 14.2 Variability in feeding value within the same feed ingredient
  • 14.3 Effects of processing on the feeding value of feed ingredients
  • 14.4 Interactive effects of feed ingredients on nutrient digestion and utilisation
  • 14.5 Significance of microbial fermentation in the upper gut of pigs
  • 14.6 Feed ingredient specific effects on nutrient metabolism in visceral organs
  • 14.7 Differences in nutrient digestibilities between different classes of pig
  • 14.8 Conclusions
  • 14.9 References

15. Advances in feed evaluation for poultry

  • Summary
  • 15.1 Introduction
  • 15.2 The poultry industry and feed evaluation
  • 15.3 The digestive tract, prehension and food intake and digestion
  • 15.4 Feed evaluation
  • 15.4.1 Energy
  • 15.4.1.1 Experimental methods in feed energy evaluation
  • 15.4.1.2 Prediction of the ME values of poultry feeds and feedstuffs
  • 15.4.1.3. Prediction equations for feed fats
  • 15.4.1.5. Moving to a net energy system
  • 15.4.1.6 Enhancing dietary energy values
  • 15.4.2. Protein and amino acids
  • 15.4.2.1 Measurement of amino acid availability
  • 15.4.2.2 Feed formulation and the control of protein and amino acid levels
  • 15.4.2.3 Information sources for amino acids and protein utilisation
  • 15.4.3 Minerals
  • 15.5 Conclusions
  • 15.6 References

16. Advances in feed evaluation for companion animals

  • Summary
  • 16.1 Introduction
  • 16.2 Evolution of Canoidea and Feloidea
  • 16.3 Anatomy of the digestive tract of cats and dogs
  • 16.4 Metabolic adaptations of the cat and the dog
  • 16.4.1 Protein and amino acid metabolism
  • 16.4.2 Essential fatty acids
  • 16.4.3. Vitamin metabolism
  • 16.4.4. Mineral metabolism
  • 16.5 Criteria for diet formulation
  • 16.6 Nutritional testing of diets for cats and dogs
  • 16.6.1 Palatability testing
  • 16.6.2 Tests for nutritionally complete and balanced diets: chemical testing
  • 16.6.3 Tests for nutritionally complete and balanced diets: animal testing
  • 16.6.4 Other nutritional tests for companion animal diets
  • 16.7 Prepared cat and dog foods
  • 16.8 Over-formulation of commercial diets for cats and dogs
  • 16.9 Nutrient digestibility
  • 16.10 Conclusions
  • 16.11 References

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