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Aspergillus in the Genomic Era

  • Aspergillus in the Genomic Era

Aspergillus in the Genomic Era

Edited by János Varga and Robert A. Samson

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Author(s): Edited by János Varga and Robert A. Samson

About The Book

Aspergillus is among the economically most important fungal genera. Aspergillus species are used in the fermentation industry for the production of various enzymes, organic acids and pharmaceutically important compounds, and in Oriental food fermentations. At the same time, Aspergilli can cause opportunistic infections, and produce a range of secondary metabolites also known as mycotoxins which are harmful to humans and animals.

Due to its importance in biotechnology, medicine and foods, Aspergilli are in the forefront of studies dealing with various aspects of fungi. This is well illustrated by the fact that projects aiming at sequencing the genomes of nine species are in progress. In this book, some aspects of the biology of this genus are covered, including the biotechnological importance of Aspergilli, their role in mycotoxin contamination of food products including grapes and coffee products, and implications of biodiversity of Aspergillus populations for agriculture. Among the clinical aspects, the role of Aspergilli in eye infections, the mechanisms of antifungal drug resistance and their molecular identification in the clinical setting are covered. Several chapters deal with the genomic aspects of Aspergilli, including the genomics of pigment biosynthesis, extracellular enzyme production, aflatoxin biosynthesis and the identification of genes taking part in sexual processes.

Additional chapters cover the variability and inheritance of mycoviruses in Aspergilli and multilocus approaches are given to clarify the evolutionary history of the genus. Finally, a new taxonomic classification of the various Aspergillus sections is given based on multilocus sequence data.

Additional Information

Author Edited by János Varga and Robert A. Samson
Availability In Print
Dimensions Unknown
Extent 334 Pages
ISBN 9789086860654
Publication date 2008
Book Type Hardcover

Contents

Preface

I. Phylogenetics and taxonomy of AspergilliA review of molecular phylogenetics in Aspergillus, and prospects for a robust genus-wide phylogeny

  • Abstract
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Early molecular phylogenetics
  • 3. Multilocus approaches
  • 4. Successes and shortcomings
  • 5. Genomics, and a ?many locus? approach
  • References

    Phylogeny and subgeneric taxonomy of Aspergillus
  • Abstract
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Taxonomic outline of the genus Aspergillus based on phylogenetic analysis of multilocus sequence data
  • 3. Subgenus Nidulantes
  • 4. Subgenus Circumdati
  • 5. Subgenus Fumigati
  • 6. Subgenus Terrei
  • 7. Subgenus Aspergillus
  • 8. Subgenus Candidi
  • 9. Species excluded from the Aspergillus genus
  • 10. Subgeneric arrangements
  • 11. Conclusions
  • Acknowledgements
  • References

    Ochratoxin A in profiling and speciation
  • Abstract
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Ochratoxin A producing fungi
  • 3. Methods for detecting OTA producing fungi
  • 4. Ochratoxin A in profiling and speciation
  • 5. Some problems in determining OTA production
  • Acknowledgements
  • References

II. Aspergillus genomics and geneticsAspergillus genomics and DHN-melanin conidial pigmentation

  • Abstract
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Biochemistry and genetics of DHN-melanin production
  • 3. Conidial DHN-melanin pigments and genomics
  • 4. Conclusions and future directions
  • Acknowledgements
  • References

    A genomic look at physiology and extracellular enzymes of Aspergillus in relation to utilization of plant matter
  • Abstract
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Plant polysaccharides
  • 3. Plant polysaccharide degradation by Aspergillus
  • 4. Presence of plant polysaccharide degrading functions in Aspergillus genomes
  • 5. Fungal carbon catabolic pathways related to plant matter
  • 6. Regulatory aspects of carbon source utilisation in Aspergillus
  • 7. Suitability of genes encoding plant polysaccharide degrading enzymes for phylogeny
  • 8. Concluding remarks
  • References

    Sexual genes in the asexual filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger and related Aspergilli
  • Abstract
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Results
  • 3. Discussion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References

    Mycoviruses in the Aspergilli
  • Abstract
  • 1. An introduction to mycoviruses
  • 2. Mycoviruses identified in different Aspergillus species
  • 3. Mycovirus dynamics in the black Aspergilli
  • 4. Mycovirus dynamics in the Aspergillus nidulans
  • 5. Conclusions, perspectives and future research
  • References

III. Aspergilli in the biotechnology and agricultureAspergillus in grapes: ecology, biodiversity and genomics

  • Abstract
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Aspergillus black rot of grapes
  • 3. Ecology, toxigenicity and biodiversity of black Aspergilli
  • 4. Structure and biosynthesis of ochratoxins
  • 5. Biosynthetic genes in OTA producing fungi
  • 6. Molecular tools for identification of black Aspergilli
  • 7. Managing the ochratoxin A risk in the grape-food chain
  • 8. Conclusions
  • References

    Aspergilli and ochratoxin A in coffee
  • Abstract
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Coffee varieties and processing
  • 3. Ochratoxin A contamination in coffee
  • 4. Ochratoxin A producing fungi in coffee
  • 5. Factors affecting ochratoxin production by Aspergillus spp. in coffee beans
  • 6. Reduction of ochratoxin A in coffee processing
  • 7. Risk of OTA from coffee consumption
  • 8. Conclusions
  • References

    Genetic diversity in Aspergillus flavus and its implications for agriculture
  • Abstract
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Biosynthesis
  • 3. Sclerotial morphotypes
  • 4. Vegetative compatibility and diversity
  • 5. Recombination as a source of diversity
  • 6. Evolution of the aflatoxin cluster
  • 7. Agriculture and A. flavus diversity
  • References

    The importance of Aspergilli and regulatory aspects of Aspergillus nomenclature in biotechnology
  • Abstract
  • 1. History of Aspergillus in biotechnology
  • 2. Regulatory approval and nomenclature
  • 3. Commercially produced enzymes and pharmaceutical proteins
  • References

IV. Clinical apects of AspergilliDNA sequence based methods for species identification in the genus Aspergillus

  • Abstract
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Comparative DNA sequencing strategy
  • 3. The genus Aspergillus
  • 4. Molecular identification of the infrageneric species
  • 5. Identification of species within the sections in the genus Aspergillus
  • 6. Conclusion
  • Disclaimer
  • References

    Azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus
  • Abstract
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Antifungal agents
  • 3. Intrinsic or primary resistance
  • 4. Evolution of resistance to antifungal drugs
  • 5. Azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus
  • 6. Clinical implications of azole resistance
  • References

    Aspergillus species in human keratomycosis
  • Abstract
  • 1. Introduction
  • 2. Epidemiology of Aspergillus keratitis
  • 3. Clinical features of Aspergillus keratitis
  • 4. Morphological and molecular diagnosis of Aspergilli from human keratomycosis
  • 5. Animal models for studying Aspergillus keratitis
  • 6. Antimycotics for the treatment of Aspergillus keratitis: antifungal susceptibilities and effectiveness for the therapy of experimental and clinical infections
  • 7. Surgical interventions
  • 8. Pathogenesis of Aspergillus keratitis
  • 9. Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References

Index

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